Let's say a build up of CSF actually compresses or inhibits venous blood circulation from the brain leading to a blood reflux and Multiple Sclerosis brain damage. Dr. Zamboni's central hypothesis remains valid, it is the blood reflux which injures the brain. But the CAUSE of the reflux may NOT be IN the veins themselves. Physical manipulation of the cranium and vertebrae may be neccessary to release the CSF pressure. (Surgery which actually drains the CSF pressure might be suggested, but I'm not one to go for that without having really tried "manipulation")
Also, I've begun meditation with deep breathing exercise and visualization of brain fluid circulation. It's difficult for me to stop thinking, to empty my mind, to focus simply on my breathing and release of body tension. So I began with 5 minutes one day, and am trying to build up.
The second quote about vertebral veins was posted by Cece on October 15, 2012. The inside vein walls are muscular (therefore subject to muscle tension stress ?) and the exterior vertebral veins are controlled by valves. Again this implies that stress pure and simple could "squeeze" the interior vertebral vein blood back into the brain.
The Italian MS Society recently declared the CCSVI link to MS theory to be invalid after a 2 year "controlled" study which was administered by a Neurologist.. Their only diagnostic tool was a Doppler Sonogram and 89% of positive results from local clinics were deemed invalid. Dr. Zamboni pulled out of the study early on, objecting to the protocols which he deemed would bias the outcome. It is obvious that Professor Zamboni's protocols should be respected in the study of a theory he has developed and demonstrated. However, in addition to the study of a vein abnormality (stenosis or valve problem), I believe one needs to consider the role of muscle tension caused by toxic stress as well as cerebrospinal fluid compression. This complicates the issue and makes a simplistic "let's see if the vein is blocked in MS?" study inconclusive since one can have a blood reflux without an actual physically observable pathology.
I have now concluded there are 5 main forms of MS. 1) Congenital 2) Developmental 3) Skeletal Trauma ( which impedes the free flow of Cerebral fluids - blood and cerebrospinal) 4) Toxic 5) Aging.
First Quote: Posted by Fernando on ThisIsMs.com Sept 13, 2009
Investigating Cerebral Circulation as the Physiological Underpinning of Consciousness
A collaboration between the Beckley Foundation and the Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and
Biochemistry,St. Petersburg, led by Prof. Yuri Moskalenko, Amanda Feilding and Peter Halvorson
One of the projects we are most excited
about at the Beckley Foundation is our collaboration with Prof. Yuri Moskalenko
investigating cranial compliance. Cranial compliance is a measure of the
functioning of the cranial system as a whole: the skull, the brain tissue, and
all the liquids that flow through and around this complex system. Cranial
compliance is determined by the interaction of all these components, and the
results of our investigation so far have shown that a better understanding of
these interactions is of crucial importance for healthier brains and improved
cognitive functioning throughout the whole of one's life.
System and Cranial Compliance
The circulation of blood in the brain
differs from that of the other organs because the brain is encased within a
nearly-rigid container, the cranium. The situation is further complicated by a
second fluid system in the brain, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) system, which
circulates in its own compartments and interacts with the blood system. These
systems are interdependent such that changes in the volume, pressure and
movements of one system should lead to concomitant changes in the other,
consistent with the laws of fluid dynamics. The study of brain circulation has
therefore evolved into the study of the bio-mechanical principles of how fluids
move through soft tubes inside a closed container under pressure. There are
many different configurations by which the two fluid volumes interact, and
learning more about these reveals vital new information about brain circulation
and its implications for health.
The concept of brain circulation from
this systemic point of view, as a complex biological system, has been given the
name cranial compliance or CC. Understanding CC is relevant to medical
professionals as well as for each and every one of us. Changes in the
elasticity of this complex system over the life span have been shown to have a
direct impact on cerebral health and cognitive functioning, as our most
recently completed research clearly demonstrates. To know and to manage cranial
compliance is as important for the good health of the brain as knowing and
managing one's blood pressure is for the heart. The good news is that our
research indicates that early, proactive management of cranial compliance may
counteract the diminution in brain functions considered to be an inevitable
part of normal ageing.
The importance of good cerebral circulation and
our intuitive understanding of this is highlighted by the long history we
humans have of devising practices that improve our cerebral circulation. The
benefits of yogic breathing exercises to cranial compliance, for example,
indicate an appreciation that inspiration and expiration (i.e. respiratory
pressure changes) are one of the driving forces of brain circulation. Indeed,
the respiratory system can be considered as a third fluid system in terms of
the effects it has on blood and CSF movements. Altering the extent and rhythm
of breathing influences the quality and quantity of fluid movements around the
As described above, to really understand cranial compliance and
cerebral circulation you have to consider the brain and the cranial system as a
holistic whole. The complex cranial structures that influence brain
1) the skull and it's membranes; 2) the vessels and
their blood content; 3) the brain tissue; and 4) the cerebrospinal fluid system
within all of its various compartments and convolutions. The CSF system
cushions the brain and is, most importantly, responsible for the cleansing of
the tissue, like a special lymphatic system just for the brain that can remove
waste products too large to pass back into the blood
Second Quote posted by Cece on ThisIsMs.com Oct 12, 2012
Clin Anat. 2012 Jul ; 25(5):609-18 21976364
venous plexuses: The internal veins are muscular and external veins have
Mark D Stringer, Matthew Restieaux, Amanda L Fisher, Brynley
Department of Anatomy, Otago School of Medical Sciences, University
of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
The internal and external vertebral
venous plexuses (VVP) extend the length of the vertebral column. Authoritative
sources state that these veins are devoid of valves, permitting bidirectional
blood flow and facilitating the hematogenous spread of malignant tumors that
have venous connections with these plexuses. The aim of this investigation was
to identify morphologic features that might influence blood flow in the VVP.
The VVP of 12 adult cadavers (seven female, mean age 79.5 years) were examined
by macro- and micro-dissection and representative veins removed for histology
and immunohistochemistry (smooth muscle antibody staining). A total of 26,
mostly bicuspid, valves were identified in 19 of 56 veins (34%) from the
external VVP, all orientated to promote blood flow towards the internal VVP.
The internal VVP was characterized by four main longitudinal channels with
transverse interconnections; the maximum caliber of the longitudinal anterior
internal VVP veins was significantly greater than their posterior counterparts
(P < 0.001). The luminal architecture of the internal VVP veins was
striking, consisting of numerous bridging trabeculae (cords, thin membranes and
thick bridges) predominantly within the longitudinal venous channels.
Trabeculae were composed of collagen and smooth muscle and also contained
numerous small arteries and nerve fibers. A similar internal venous trabecular
meshwork is known to exist within the dural venous sinuses of the skull. It may
serve to prevent venous overdistension or collapse, to regulate the direction
and velocity of venous blood flow, or is possibly involved in thermoregulation
or other homeostatic processes. Clin. Anat. 25:609-618, 2012. © 2011 Wiley
Comment: If our IJVs are blocked, many of us rely greatly on our
vertebral vein plexuses. Here is more information about the vertebral veins.
It's interesting to read about the trabeculae and wonder how the strands and
membranes impact upon blood flow. Trabeculae are partially composed of collagen
and people with MS have abnormal collagen in their IJVs; do we also have
abnormal collagen in our VVs and our trabeculae?
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